Daily Archives: April 3, 2017

The Melian Dialogue

I was once asked to study and discuss the opposing views of Athens does Thucydides present in "Pericles' Funeral Oration" and "The Melian Dialogue?" As I began to study the matter, I surprised why he presented such contrasting views. A focused reading of Thucydides '"Pericles' Funeral Oration" and "The Melian Dialogue" uncovers two clearly contrasting views of the ancient city of Athens. The former, being a funeral origin, depicted Athens as the model city-state, worthy of emulation, while the latter shows the less flattering image of arrogant, Athenian military aggression.

I believe one of the keys to understanding this contrast lies in the following portion of the funeral origin:

"For there is justice in the claim that steadfastness in his country's battles should be as a cloak to cover a man's other imperfections; since the good action has blotted out the bad, and his merit as a citizen more than outweighed his demerits as an individual . " (Thucydides 3)

Thucydides shows each side of the workings of this 'cloak' in these two pieces. As the fallen war heroes are eulogized before the city in "Pericles' Funeral Oration", their valiant actions, typical for any Athenian, are justified and extolled as he outlines the four 'habits' that have caused Athens to attain and maintain such greatness. These habits, the young orator, Pericles, son of Xanthippus, rhetorically identifies as the cause of Athens' success, "But what was the road by which we reached our position, what the form of government under which our greatness, what the national Habits out of which it sprang; " (Thucydides 2) Athens is thus, presented as a prototype city.

"The Melian Dialogue," however, reveals what imperfections and demerits are laying beneath its habits and victories. In these two pieces we see Athens, the virtuous city and Athens, the neighborhood bully. The steadfastness and sacred valiance of the fallen soldiers is contradicted with the aggressive, colonialism of Athens. Certainly Athens was an envied city, but perhaps she was not as virtuous as she appeared in her own eyes.

Beginning on page two of the translation of "Pericles 'Funeral Oration," Pericles, son of Xanthippus, outlines four habits that have resolved in Athens' success. These being: their laws, their balance of work and pleasure, their military policy, and lastly, and their high culture. A brief sampling of each of the text will suffice herein.

The first habit consists of the superior laws and government of Athens. The Athenians were proud that their constitution did not copy the laws of neighboring states; They were rather. Its administration favored the many instead of the few and they felt that this was why it was a democracy. Upon looking at their laws, they found that they agreed equal justice to all men.

Next, the leisurely pleasures that Athens afforded its citizens was vital to their success. They provided plenty of means for the mind and body to be refreshed from the stress of business affairs. They celebrated games and sacrifices throughout the year, and the elegance of their many private establishments formed a daily source of pleasure for Athenians.

Continuing, Athens' military might was an important aspect of their society. "If we turn to our military policy, there also we differ from our antagonists. We throw our city to the world and never by alien acts exclude foreigners from any opportunity of learning or observing …" (Thucydides 2) Interestingly, Pericles positions Athens as the protagonist who is simply defending herself from the 'antagonists'. Later, he employs the word assailants as well. This time, he admits that Athens, herself, also plays the role of the antagonist, "For Athens alone of her contemporaries is found when tested to be greater than her reputation, and alone gives no occasion to her assailants to blush at the antagonist by What they have been worsted … "(Thucydides 3)

Finally, the culture of Athens was highly sophisticated one. "Nor are these the only points in which our city is worthy of admiration. We cultivate refinement without extravagance and knowledge without effeminacy; wealth we employ more for use than for show … Our public men have, besides politics, their private affairs to Attend to, and our ordinary citizens, although occupied with their pursuits, are still fair judgments of public matters. " (Thucydides 3)

Far removed from the proud citizens of Athens finest, Thucydides turns our attention to the front lines of battle in "The Melian Dialogue." Here we see a glimpse of what Pericles would never share with the distinguished citizens of Athens. Simply stated, the Athenians came to the island of Metos to enslave, or to kill the Melians.

The first peek behind their honorable cloak of steadfastness in one of country's battles is the sheer magnitude of their army. They overwhelmed the Melians with a show of force. The Athenians also made an expedition against the isle of Melos with thirty ships of their own; Sixteen hundred heavy infantry, three hundred archhers, and twenty mounted archers from Athens, and about fifteen hundred heavy infantry from the allies and the islanders. They intended to force the Melians into servitude. This is a stark contrast to "We throw open our city to the world, and never by alien acts exclude foreigners from any opportunity of learning or observing …" (Thucydides 1)

Actually, the real mindset of the Athenians viewed the Melians as inferior. They saw them as islanders and weaker than others rendering it all the more critical that they do not succeed in defeating "the masters of the sea." (Thucydides 2) In the reminder of this conference, The Athenians go on to deride the Melians' hope, strength and even their trust in the gods. It is the ugly side of Athens. Perhaps the fifth habit responsible for Athens' success was her aggressive military conquests.

Why did Thucydides present such contrasting views in a simple funeral agreement and "The Melian Dialogue"?

Undoubtedly, he was privy to much of the inner workings of Athenian politics, scandal, and hypocrisy. He wanted to savage nature of Athens' success to be seen and judged in the same light as its finer attributes. He wanted to expose the realities that came with a democracy that favored the many instead of the few. He understood the dangers of elevating the beloved, hidden 'imperfections' of the state at the expense of human life and dignity. He wanted his readers to understand these things equally as well.

Science and Research

Overseeing science and research requires a novel expertise set that are not the same as general administration aptitudes required for different sorts of organizations. General administration hypothesis is pertinent to science and research administration, however not adequate to provide food for the particular prerequisites of science and research administration. For that reason we accept in this article the peruser is as of now acquainted with general administration standards and methodologies. Our concentration here is to take a gander at the particular prerequisites of science and research administration.

A vital perspective is understanding what might constitute great science and how to make a situation that would permit the learning era part of science and research to thrive. Vital angles that contrast from general administration standards are:

Quality confirmation frequently supersedes the procedure centered approach in association for the most part. Particularly where the issues are not standard and along these lines require one of a kind ways to deal with be tackled, it is extremely hard to give predictable quality affirmation and execution pointers.

Science and research administration requires a cautious harmony amongst speculation and making utility for ebb and flow utilize. Unless an extensive exertion is made to continually put resources into more capacities and development of existing abilities, administration of science and research winds up over the medium term with an inexorably stale and useless logical research ability. This requires a money related administration approach that does not upgrade for here and now benefit just, but rather likewise provides food for the capacity working of progressing the venture.

The general population playing out the science and research work are typically a rare item, and supplanting them require significant venture of both time and cash. Hence maintenance and continuous improvement of existing specialists should be a concentration in the plan of action (this is valid for all learning serious imaginative conditions).

The workplace need to empower inventive and imaginative work, and encourage and esteem collaboration. The execution markers for these are frequently hard to characterize (they may even be immaterial). Yet, offering thoughtfulness regarding them and getting them appropriate for the particular sort of science and research work is critical for an effective science and research capacity.

Notwithstanding the majority of this there is the part of “overseeing science where it happens”, to be specific to guarantee the logical work itself is of a decent quality and make the best utilization of the accessible capacities. Normally this is provided food for by the different traditions that researchers and specialists of particular controls hold fast to professionally.

In any case, the different sciences have various contrasts and shared characteristics that make keeping up the logical thoroughness when work is done in more than one of the major branches of science extremely troublesome. For this reasons many research capacities either limit themselves to just chose branches of science, or they hold the obstructions between the different sciences and never truly get to a coordinated logical ability that ranges over the limits of the sciences. In the complex and exceptionally associated social orders we live in that is turning into an undeniably untenable circumstance. We should have the capacity to incorporate the sciences to have the capacity to give applicable and valuable new information, using the best that science offers. Utilizing science in an incorporated way opens most an incentive in circumstances like this. We have to remember that

Every one of the sciences share a shared objective to scan for “reality”, or “truths”, or “proof. This shared objective gives the foundation against which we can distinguish various likenesses.

There are some genuine contrasts between the sciences that we can’t expel by constraining one approach on all the branches of science.

Fulfilling this is difficult. Notwithstanding, there are two arrangements of components that are regular to all branches of the sciences. They can be utilized as a part of all branches of science to guarantee that we can coordinate our logical work over the conventional branches of the sciences. They are

The logical productiveness includes: These are the components of science that encourage its accomplishment in learning era. Learning can be created in various ways, however these science has represented throughout the hundreds of years that where these elements are available and utilized suitably they encourage a level of progress that is not generally conceivable.

The Scientific Capability Features: These are the components that depict the approach to information era using the logical efficiency highlights.

We have utilized these two for incorporated logical work in various cross-disciplinary applications (for the most part to tackle complex genuine issues in key administration basic leadership). They have demonstrated themselves to include an incentive in the thoroughness, quality and pertinence of cross-disciplinary logical work.